Surface Water

What is Surface Water?

Surface Water Hydrological Meteorological, refers to a comprehensive system that combines hydrological and meteorological data to monitor and manage surface water resources effectively. This integrated approach allows for a better understanding of water availability, streamflow patterns, and the impact of weather conditions on water resources. Surface Water Hydromet plays a crucial role in supporting water resource management, flood forecasting, drought monitoring, and overall water security.


The primary objectives of Surface Water Hydromet systems are as follows:

  • Water Resource Monitoring: By collecting and analyzing data on surface water flow, water levels, precipitation, and weather conditions, Surface Water Hydromet provides valuable insights into the state of water resources. This data helps in assessing water availability, predicting water scarcity, and planning sustainable water management strategies.
  • Flood Forecasting and Warning: Surface Water Hydromet systems incorporate real-time monitoring of river levels, rainfall, and other meteorological factors. This enables accurate flood forecasting and timely warnings to communities at risk, allowing for effective emergency response and mitigation measures.
  • Drought Monitoring: By tracking precipitation patterns, soil moisture levels, and water availability, Surface Water Hydromet aids in identifying and monitoring drought conditions. This information enables policymakers to implement proactive measures to alleviate the impacts of drought, such as water conservation and demand management strategies.
  • 4. Water Quality Management: Surface Water Hydromet systems also contribute to assessing and managing water quality. By monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and pollutant levels, these systems help identify pollution sources, evaluate water treatment processes, and protect ecosystems and public health.


Surface Water Hydromet systems encompass several key features that enable effective monitoring and management of surface water resources. Some notable features include:

  • Data Collection and Integration: These systems integrate data from various sources, including weather stations, stream gauges, precipitation sensors, and remote sensing technologies. The data is collected in real-time, allowing for continuous monitoring and analysis.
  • Data Analysis and Modelling: Surface Water Hydromet utilizes advanced data analysis techniques and hydrological models to interpret collected data. This enables the generation of meaningful insights, such as flow forecasts, water availability assessments, and water quality analyses.
  • Data Visualization and Reporting: Surface Water Hydromet systems provide user-friendly interfaces and visualization tools to present data in a comprehensible manner. These tools help decision-makers and stakeholders understand complex water-related information, enabling informed decision-making.
  • 4. Early Warning Systems: By combining meteorological and hydrological data, Surface Water Hydromet can issue early warnings for floods, droughts, and other water-related hazards. These warnings support emergency preparedness and response, reducing the potential impact on lives and infrastructure.

Instrument /System Used:

RTDAS (Real time Data Acquisition System) under NHP are used with wide range of instruments for data collection and monitoring. Some commonly used instruments include:

  • Ultrasonic/Radar Level Sensor and Discharge Gauge: These instruments are used to monitor the water level and discharge of rivers, streams, wells and other water bodies. They provide continuous data on the level of the water table, which is essential for understanding water availability and recharge. They can be installed in fixed locations or can be mobile, allowing for data collection in remote areas.
  • Rain Gauges: Rain gauges are used to measure the amount of precipitation at a specific location, enabling accurate assessment of rainfall patterns.
  • Automatic Weather Stations: These stations collect data on temperature, humidity, wind speed, and other meteorological parameters, facilitating the understanding of weather patterns and their influence on surface water resources.
  • Water Quality Sensors: These sensors measure various water quality parameters, including temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and chemical concentrations. They help monitor water pollution levels and assess the suitability of water for various purposes.
  • Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler: This device measures the speed and direction of water currents in rivers and other bodies of water. It measures river discharge, which is a critical parameter for understanding the water balance.


  • Real-time data measuring on a 24/7 basis.
  • More accurate and more reliable with high resolution.
  • Reliable Data collection in harsh/extreme environment.
  • Free from manual error.
  • Large volume of data for in depth studies.
  • Scheduled data transmission
  • Access to archived data locally or remotely